Lithium Chloride is a white crystal, easily soluble in water, with a solubility of 67g/100ml of water under standard conditions. It is also easily soluble in organic solvents such as ethanol, acetone, pyridine, but hardly soluble in ether. Therefore, if chlorohalohydrocarbons are used in the preparation of hydrocarbyl lithium, Lithium Chloride can be precipitated in ether, and free hydrocarbyl lithium reagents (lithium bromide, iodine) can be obtained. Lithium and hydrocarbyl lithium form an adduct and act as a stabilizer). The melting point is 605°C, the boiling point is 1350°C, and the lattice energy is 853 kJ/mol.
Lithium Chloride chemical properties: the aqueous solution is neutral or slightly alkaline. Electrolysis of non-aqueous Lithium Chloride can generate metallic lithium and chlorine gas. Electrolysis of anhydrous lithium chloride pyridine solution can also accumulate lithium metal.
Lithium Chloride can form a variety of hydrates. From the phase diagram of LiCl-H2O, it can be clearly seen that the hydrates are LiCl·H2O, LiCl·2H2O, LiCl·3H2O, LiCl·5H2O, etc. The number of crystal water depends on the temperature of crystallization, the lower the temperature, the higher the degree of hydration.
Li can form a complex ion with ammonia [Li(NH3)4], so the solubility of ammonia in lithium chloride solution is much greater than that in water. Like other ion chlorides, lithium chloride can also supply chloride and lithium ions in an aqueous solution, and precipitate insoluble chlorides or lithium salts with other ions, such as silver chloride.
Lithium Chloride is a sodium chloride type structure, and the chemical bond between it is not a typical ionic bond, so it can be dissolved in many organic solvents, and can form adducts with different compositions with ethanol, methanol, and amines. This property can be used to separate lithium chloride from alkali metal chlorides.
Affected by the smaller ion radius and higher hydration energy of lithium, the solubility of Lithium Chloride is much greater than other domestic chlorides (83g/100mL, 20°C). Its aqueous solution is alkaline.